The well is its own source of living water

Methods and rules for arranging a well at a summer cottage

well, water source
Water is life, and clean water is a priceless treasure. No living creature can live without moisture. Since ancient times, people have chosen places for camps only near rivers and springs.

At first, a person settled only near water bodies, but gradually he began to develop the surrounding lands. Since far from everywhere groundwater comes to the surface in the form of springs and springs, people had to learn how to find and extract water on their own.

Well - where is it to be?

When and by whom the first well was created is not known for certain. However, the technology of finding an aquifer and constructing a well has remained unchanged for thousands of years. Many summer residents and owners of country houses acquire wells. In the absence of centralized water supply, this is a vital necessity, and if it is available, it is an opportunity to drink water purified by nature itself.

The well helps to solve such problems as suburban water supply, watering of the personal plot, ensuring household needs. They begin the construction of a well by looking for a place for it. Both in the old days and now, water-bearing veins on the site are looking for specially trained people - dowsers. A reliable reference point when choosing a place can be the presence of another active well nearby. Well, the most accurate way to find underground rivers is drilling.

The first layer of water (top water) usually lies shallow from the surface, but it is not cleaned, depends on the amount of precipitation that fell during the season, and is not suitable for use. A well needs a layer of ground or artesian water.

For sanitary purposes, a well is built at the highest point of the site. It must be remembered that the nearest places of potential water pollution (cattle pens, cesspools, baths, landfills) should be located very far from the well shaft.

Types of wells

A classic mine well can be dug with a shovel, but for a tubular one you will need to drill a well. The choice of the type of well depends on the depth of the aquifer and on the structure of the layers of the earth. It is impossible to drill a deep well without the availability of special equipment, therefore, the mine type of well is more common.

It consists of three main components: a water intake (approximately 1 meter deep), a main shaft and a head - the outer part of the well located above the ground. The shape of the trunk can be rectangular, but the most common is round, with a diameter of about 1000 - 1200 mm. The design of the water intake directly depends on the amount of water consumed per day. In any case, a bottom filter of three layers of crushed stone or gravel is created at the bottom of the water intake part. The lower layer has a thickness of about 100 mm, and the upper ones - 150 mm each, while in each subsequent upper layer, larger fractions are used.

Shaft well: concrete displaces wood

For the construction of mine wells from time immemorial, they used durable wood (oak, larch, alder), stone or clay brick. However, wooden wells are short-lived, and the use of stone and brick delays construction for a rather long time and requires large financial costs.

The main material for the construction of wells is now concrete. It is optimal in its performance characteristics, is durable, relatively inexpensive and meets all sanitary standards. In this case, ready-made concrete structures are used, that is, reinforced concrete rings or concrete plates. The monolithic casting method is often used.

The fastest way is to build a well from reinforced concrete rings. They are bought or cast on their own in a wooden formwork. To protect these types of wells from the ingress of water from the surface of the earth, a clay castle is built around the upper ring: a ditch 30-50 cm wide and deep, filled with compacted clay.

The ground part, on which a gate with a chain and a bucket for raising water is mounted, is often equipped with a nice house for a well. It protects the water from dust, dirt, rain and snow, and decorates the garden plot, turning the well into a fabulous hut or a Chinese pagoda, depending on the style of the landscape design of the site.

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